Homo sapiens , the first modern humans, appear in Africa. Bow and arrows with stone points arrowheads are used. Cro-Magnon man is flourishing, moving from the Near East into Europe, lives by hunting and gathering. Bering Strait is crossed by humans, connecting Asia to the Americas. Clay pottery ware is created. Humans begin to use raw metals. Humans make it to the southern most point of South America. Cows and sheep were domesticated and crops where manipulated and tended. A great earthquake destroys the city of Jericho. First beer is brewed from grain in the Near East.
“The Evolution of Desire”: A Groundbreaking Book About Human Mating
Human Evolution Evidence Evidence of Evolution Scientists have discovered a wealth of evidence concerning human evolution , and this evidence comes in many forms. Thousands of human fossils enable researchers and students to study the changes that occurred in brain and body size, locomotion, diet, and other aspects regarding the way of life of early human species over the past 6 million years.
Millions of stone tools, figurines and paintings, footprints, and other traces of human behavior in the prehistoric record tell about where and how early humans lived and when certain technological innovations were invented. Study of human genetics show how closely related we are to other primates — in fact, how connected we are with all other organisms — and can indicate the prehistoric migrations of our species, Homo sapiens, all over the world.
Based on a starting date of 50, ± 10, years ago, representing the first human migrations from Indonesia toward Melanesia and Australia and most probably coinciding with the separate evolution of HTLV-Ic, a time frame of 27, ± 8, years ago was inferred for the origin of the African PTLV-I.
Scientific evidence shows that the physical and behavioral traits shared by all people originated from apelike ancestors and evolved over a period of approximately six million years. One of the earliest defining human traits, bipedalism — the ability to walk on two legs — evolved over 4 million years ago. Other important human characteristics — such as a large and complex brain, the ability to make and use tools, and the capacity for language — developed more recently.
Many advanced traits — including complex symbolic expression, art, and elaborate cultural diversity — emerged mainly during the past , years. Physical and genetic similarities show that the modern human species , Homo sapiens, has a very close relationship to another group of primate species, the apes. Humans first evolved in Africa, and much of human evolution occurred on that continent.
The fossils of early humans who lived between 6 and 2 million years ago come entirely from Africa. Most scientists currently recognize some 15 to 20 different species of early humans. Scientists do not all agree, however, about how these species are related or which ones simply died out. Many early human species — certainly the majority of them — left no living descendants. Scientists also debate over how to identify and classify particular species of early humans, and about what factors influenced the evolution and extinction of each species.
Early humans first migrated out of Africa into Asia probably between 2 million and 1. They entered Europe somewhat later, between 1. Species of modern humans populated many parts of the world much later.
Creation Versus Evolution
Genetic data based on molecular clock estimates support a Late Miocene ancestry. Various Eurasian and African Miocene primates have been advocated as possible ancestors to the early hominins, which came on the scene during the Pliocene Epoch 5. Though there is no consensus among experts, the primates suggested include Kenyapithecus, Griphopithecus, Dryopithecus , Graecopithecus Ouranopithecus , Samburupithecus, Sahelanthropus, and Orrorin.
Kenyapithecus inhabited Kenya and Griphopithecus lived in central Europe and Turkey from about 16 to 14 mya. Dryopithecus is best known from western and central Europe, where it lived from 13 to possibly 8 mya.
“Absolute” dating means finding a specific age for an object. A sample of volcanic ash, for instance, can be given an absolute date of million years old.
At-a-Glance The dates assigned to the key events in human evolutionary history are very inconsistent. The supposed divergence of ape-like creatures into chimpanzee and human lineages is dated at 6. The divergence of the Neanderthal and modern human lineages is dated at around , or , years ago. Molecular clocks are based on DNA differences between individuals sharing or supposedly sharing a common ancestor.
Improving knowledge of mutation rates has refined molecular clocks, but cannot compensate for the worldview-based dates used to set them. When a molecular clock is used to date an imaginary evolutionary event, the event is still imaginary! If you listen closely to newscasters, schoolteachers, and evolutionary experts when they talk about our evolutionary history, you will notice discrepancies in the numbers they quote. Do those discrepancies bother you?
On Oct 15, Image: And our DNA also holds clues about the timing of these key events in human evolution. However, these methods require ancient remains to have certain elements or preservation conditions, and that is not always the case. Moreover, relevant fossils or artifacts have not been discovered for all milestones in human evolution. Analyzing DNA from present-day and ancient genomes provides a complementary approach for dating evolutionary events.
Because certain genetic changes occur at a steady rate per generation, they provide an estimate of the time elapsed.
Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo – and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great process involved the gradual development of traits such as human bipedalism and language, as well as.
Important We believe any unbiased reader will realize that we were fair with our treatment of the two models in the table above. Yet, although the theory of evolution matches the facts in some cases, evolution is still an unproven theory. By now, you may believe it should be your first choice also. Unlike many others that preceded us, we attempted to find a clear defense of evolution for two reasons: To keep from being accused of bias. To keep from making claims that someone could refute later.
Even though there are a great number of claims in books and on the Internet, we could find no scientific, testable facts that support the theory of evolution. The best site we could find was at The University of California at Berkeley. If you are interested, click here to examine the scientific evidence recorded at UC Berkeley yourself. It includes lots of pictures, links to other pages, and scientific names. The site is very interesting and informative.
Yet, we could not find a listing of the provable, testable facts supporting evolution anywhere.
The Timeline of Human Evolution
The “Design Flaw ” Argument Oh, but what about the “design flaws” of the human eye? It is a common argument in favor of evolution that no intelligent designer would design anything with flaws. Evolution on the other hand, being a naturalistic process of trial and error, easily explains the existence of flaws in the natural world. Although many are convinced by this argument, this argument in and of itself assumes the motives and capabilities of the designer. To say that everything designed should match our individual conceptions of perfection before we can detect design, is clearly misguided.
Some might question the design of a Picasso painting, but no one questions the fact that it was designed, even having never met Picasso.
View images by clicking on link or reduced image: Each image opens into a new window. These primitive, medium sized apes lived in rain forests between 18 and 22 million years ago. This species and others such as Dryopithecus existed before the hominid line diverged on the path to humans. This lineage ancestral gibbons is believed to have diverged from the great ape and human lineages between 17 and 25 Mya Avers, Oreopithecus ‘s hand closely matches the pattern of early hominids, with a grasping capability including firm pad-to-pad precision gripping that apes are unable to perform presumably as a response to similar functional demands to hominids Moya-Sola et al, Bipedal activities made up a significant part of the positional behavior of this primate Kohler and Moya-Sola, Gorilla and human DNA only differs by 2.
Introduction to Human Evolution
Before Darwin[ edit ] The word homo, the name of the biological genus to which humans belong, is Latin for “human”. It was chosen originally by Carl Linnaeus in his classification system. The word “human” is from the Latin humanus, the adjectival form of homo.
Radiocarbon dating can easily establish that humans have been on the earth for over twenty thousand years, at least twice as long as creationists are willing to allow.
Dating Here of some of the well-tested methods of dating used in the study of early humans: Potassium-argon dating, Argon-argon dating, Carbon or Radiocarbon , and Uranium series. All of these methods measure the amount of radioactive decay of chemical elements; the decay occurs in a consistent manner, like a clock, over long periods of time. Thermo-luminescence, Optically stimulated luminescence, and Electron spin resonance. All of these methods measure the amount of electrons that get absorbed and trapped inside a rock or tooth over time.
Since animal species change over time, the fauna can be arranged from younger to older. At some sites, animal fossils can be dated precisely by one of these other methods. For sites that cannot be readily dated, the animal species found there can be compared to well-dated species from other sites. In this way, sites that do not have radioactive or other materials for dating can be given a reliable age estimate.
This method compares the amount of genetic difference between living organisms and computes an age based on well-tested rates of genetic mutation over time.